Mining - Wikipedia
Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.An Introduction To Surface Mining - AZoMining,There are two basic classes of mining: mining at the Earth’s surface and mining underground. This article will concentrate on the former. Surface mining accounts for two thirds of the world’s solid minerals, and is predominantly used in obtaining sand, gravel, crushed stone, phosphates, coal, copper, iron and aluminium.Surface Mining Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size and,,Surface mining accounts for about 85% of the overall mineral exploitation in the US. The major countries using surface mining include the US, Canada, Mexico, Peru, India, China, Chile, Brazil, Indonesia, Ukraine, Angola and Australia.